In a recent article, I wrote about getting around in your wifi environment, using the airport utility available on the terminal, in this article, we will look at Network commands, starting from the most popular and quite mythical, ifconfig. Once you get more familiar with your Mac Terminal, the sky is the limit, you can do magical things, on your Mac with text-based access to your operating system using its command-line interface (and not just the basics, as creating files, directories, and assign permissions).

1. List available network interfaces

The ifconfig command will list all available network interfaces, including their IPV4 and IPV6 addresses, their…


Security and privacy are at the heart of our digital experiences. passwords as the main authentication method nowadays are used everywhere.

Welcome to the world of password disorder known also as Password Entropy


We use the factorial function to multiply the whole number from a chosen number down to one.

So for example, 4 factorial (4!) is 4 times 3 times2 times 1, which is equal to 24.


In classic cryptography, we have 2 operations that are used throughout the history of hiding messages and turning plain text into a cipher message

Substitution and transposition

In the substitution algorithm( as used in Caesar cipher and vigenere cipher ) we replace one character with another by shifting its place in the alphabet with a pre-defined number of places

In the transposition algorithm, As the name implies, the plain text is re-ordered, we change the order of elements. But the character stays the same

Let us use the python pseudo-random number generator module to take plain text and use transposition operation, with the key being the random seed ( the initial value, where the random generator start its math operations )

We will start and import the random…


If you’re using an SSL VPN on your Fortigate Firewall, then you have 3 modes to choose from.

The first one is a Web mode, where you access resources through a web browser. But with a limited set of protocols.

In the second, Full tunnel mode, you get access to all the protocols and applications, but the traffic the full traffic will move through that tunnel. And sometimes it is not requested. ( Takes resources from your FortiGate firewall )

The third mode is a Split Tunnel mode where you can access specific resources, and the rest of the traffic will move through the public Internet.

Let’s look at a split tunnel mode.

Our topology is as follows. We have our LAN interface. And we…


Base 64 is used everywhere. It is the most known and famous encoding scheme that is used to represent binary data and transform it into an ASCII representation. Why do we use it? What is the algorithm? And how does it actually work?

We use base 64 as a method to encode binary data into an ASCII representation.

Why?

We do so since many systems and networks just don’t represent binary data as it is supposed to be shown. So how does it actually work?

Let’s do it by example. Let’s take the word FortiGate. Each character has an eight-byte representation.


Cryptography Handbook For Beginners

Let’s start with a question

You Enter your office and you need to enter a 4-character password

The keypad has 10 digits


The U.S president Thomas Jefferson was known for his curiosity and interest in the art of cryptography. his most famous crypto invention was the cipher wheel, which he didn’t believe at first that is secure enough, and actually choose another cryptosystem over it, although, his own system was far more secure


If you are new to firewall’s or moving from another firewall platform to a fortigate firewall

I have created 2 courses and 2 books, to teach you the theory and practice of a fortigate firewall

What will you learn :

  • First set up
  • Administration
  • interface creation
  • Services
  • Firewall rules
  • Routing decisions
  • Sessions
  • Logs
  • Flow-based inspection
  • Proxy-based inspection
  • Web filter essentials
  • Application control essentials
  • Explicit proxy configuration
  • And more

My Udemy Courses

https://www.udemy.com/course/fortigate-admin-crash-course/?referralCode=0B534DCF7A6D8BD3417E

https://www.udemy.com/course/fortigate-firewall-utm-crash-course/?referralCode=8844EB4F1B0A9F477BB7

My books

https://www.amazon.com/Fortigate-Pocket-Guide-2-Book/dp/B08VH4FX3V/ref=sr_1_11?dchild=1&keywords=fortigate+books&qid=1612511343&sr=8-11


Did you know that your firewall has an iperf3 client built inside?

If you are the owner of a FortiGate firewall, then you are lucky to have iperf client built inside

Your iperf client allows you to take throughput measures between different interfaces or between your FortiGate firewall and public iperf servers ( https://iperf.cc/)

iperf is much more accurate and reliable than the dozens or more speed test tools available everywhere. it is an open-source tool that tests your network performance, with respect to the protocols used ( UDP or TCP ), amount of parallel TCP connections, TCP window size…

You can install iperf either as a client or as a server on any Linux, Windows, or Mac computer and you can also use public free iperf servers against your iperf…

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